Difference between revisions of "Vehicle emission reduction equipment requirements"

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Emission reduction equipment requirements are policies that require vehicles to have specific equipment which aid in reducing toxic emissions into the atmosphere. These policies are put into place safeguard the environment by reducing the volatile substances which enter the atmosphere especially through fossil fuel sources. Common substances which are detrimental to air quality include SO2, NOx, ozone, and particulate matter. Off road vehicles used for construction and agriculture are also considered under policies regarding equipment requirements. Emission reduction equipment requirements policies are historically implemented at the national level, typically in conjunction with overall clean air policies and actions. The policies are most effective when they include local and state government participation to further limit and monitor emission activity. As a result of the emission reduction policy, companies and vehicle owners will inevitable look for the cheapest equipment available to comply with the policy; thus, market forces will lead to the competitive production of the cheapest and most effiencent equipment.  
+
{{FULLPAGENAME}} are policies that require vehicles to use specific equipment in order to reduce their emission of toxic substances, usually released by the combustion of fossil fuels, into the atmosphere. Types of vehicles that may be subject to such requirements include passenger automobiles as well as off-road vehicles used for construction and agriculture. As opposed to a "standards-based approach," in which simply the amount of emissions from a vehicle is regulated, equipment requirements prescribe specific equipment that have been shown to reduce emissions. Common substances which are detrimental to air quality and whose release may be mitigated by required equipment include SO2, NOx, ozone, and particulate matter. Vehicle emission reduction equipment requirements have historically been implemented at the national level, typically in conjunction with overarching clean air policies and initiatives. The policies are most effective when they include local and state government participation to further limit and monitor emission activity. Ultimately, the requirements can be expected to increase costs for vehicle owners, though flexibility with respect to equipment design may help drive more competitive production and lower prices.  
 
 
  
 
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* [[Has goal of::Goal: Increase the fuel efficiency of automobile transportation]].
 
* [[Has goal of::Goal: Increase the fuel efficiency of automobile transportation]].
 
* [[Has goal of::Goal: Decrease the rate of environmental damage from automobiles]].
 
* [[Has goal of::Goal: Decrease the rate of environmental damage from automobiles]].
* [[Has goal of::Goal: Increase rate of technological advancement]].
 
  
 
=====Conceptual Example=====
 
=====Conceptual Example=====
  
The national government is looking to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions in order to increase public and environmental health. To begin the execution of this goal, it has required that automobile manufacturers use specified emission reduction equipment in the creation of all new cars. Additionally, the government has ordered that trucks, tractors and large, high-carbon emitting vehicles reduce their CO2 emissions by a certain rate within a five year time period.
+
A national government is experiencing increased pollution due to increased urbanization, driving and traffic congestion. Accordingly, it hopes to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions in order to increase public and environmental health. To begin the execution of this goal, it has required that vehicle manufacturers use specified emission reduction equipment certified by the government in the creation of all new automobiles and trucks. By requiring that all mass-produced vehicles carry a standardized technology or piece of equipment, the government reduces the amount of harmful emissions into the air from the use of such vehicles, resulting in cleaner air and various public health benefits.
  
 
=====Specific Example=====
 
=====Specific Example=====
 
+
In the U.S., national policies and other economic pressures have caused many vehicle manufacturers to reduce the toxicity and amount of their emissions into the atmosphere. As a result, newer model engines have generally been significantly less harmful to the environment than older models. Accordingly, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) requires that all trucks driven into marine terminals use an engine with a model year of 1994 or newer. In addition, PANYNJ also created a new program that provides eligible applicants with a grant to cover up to one-fourth of the purchase price of a newer vehicle as well as the possibility of low-interest loans to cover the remaining three-fourths of the cost. <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum">[http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/why-retrofit "Why Retrofit?"] Diesel Technology Forum. Accessed January 22, 2016. </ref>.
Through the passing of Local Law 77, New York City pushed to combat emissions production by requiring that contractors who were working on the Twin Towers meet a minimum emission standard by using emission control devices to reduce pollution effects of the project. There were concerns about how this would be enforced; thus, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) created a web tool called the Clean Diesel Clearing House which helps contractors and people monitoring the health of city air to learn how certain equipment pieces affect the air quality. <ref> "Why Retrofit? | Diesel Technology Forum." Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/why-retrofit. </ref>
 
  
 
=====Tradeoffs=====  
 
=====Tradeoffs=====  
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Tradeoffs of implementing this policy may include:
 
Tradeoffs of implementing this policy may include:
# Reduction in local construction resulting from increased cost to upgrade equipment of multiple construction vehicles to be in compliance with new policy.  
+
# Reduction in local construction activity if the required equipment necessitates substantial investments to upgrade construction vehicles in order to be in compliance with the new policy.  
# Cost of transition: replacing or updating older engines and unsustainable equipment with newer, more efficient technology.  
+
# Cost of transition: replacing or updating older engines and unsustainable equipment with newer, more efficient technologies.  
# Possible job loss due to decrease in local construction.
+
# Possible job losses due to decrease in local construction costs.
 
# Continued reliance on fossil fuels by merely promoting their decreased and more efficient use, rather than pushing for alternatives with a less harmful impact on the environment.
 
# Continued reliance on fossil fuels by merely promoting their decreased and more efficient use, rather than pushing for alternatives with a less harmful impact on the environment.
# Project is difficult to enforce due to the specificity of requirements at an individual automobile's level.
+
# May be costly and difficult to enforce and implement due to the specificity of requirements at an individual automobile's level and the potential time-intensive nature of determining whether or not the equipment is properly installed and used.
  
 
=====Compatibility Assessment=====  
 
=====Compatibility Assessment=====  
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# Has there been public opinion indicating desire for environmental reforms?
 
# Has there been public opinion indicating desire for environmental reforms?
 
# Does smog exist and has it effected weather or water quality of the city or town?
 
# Does smog exist and has it effected weather or water quality of the city or town?
 +
# Is it cost-effective to implement emission reduction equipment?
 +
# Does the technology to outfit vehicles with emission reduction equipment exist and is it readily accessible?
  
 
=====Design=====  
 
=====Design=====  
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Assuming that a jurisdiction has decided to adopt the policy, the following questions will need to be answered when determining ''how'' to implement this policy:
 
Assuming that a jurisdiction has decided to adopt the policy, the following questions will need to be answered when determining ''how'' to implement this policy:
# What are the main targets of the emission reduction equipment requirements?
+
# '''What types of vehicles and sources of emissions will be subject to the equipment requirements?'''
 
## Specific targets of the requirements would be large construction sites as well as any non-road motor vehicles such as trucks.  
 
## Specific targets of the requirements would be large construction sites as well as any non-road motor vehicles such as trucks.  
# Is the cost of emission reduction equipment worth the benefits?
+
## Additionally, since the year 2010, all U.S. automobiles require a catalytic converter to be up to standards. <ref> Thomas, B. G. (2013). What Materials are Used in Catalytic Converters? Retrieved November 21, 2016, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=8094 </ref>
## The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have set out stricter standards for the improvement of air quality. Since the reforms, SO2 emissions have fallen by about 70% and lead has fallen by 99%. Studies predict that by 2020, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will have saved $2 trillion in economic benefits.
+
# '''What equipment will be required?'''
# Will changing this policy have a significant increase on public health?
+
## Equipment for standard vehicles often focuses on the incorporation of catalytic converters.
## Since the Clean Air Act Amendments, there have been significant impacts on human health. By 2020, results from the amendments will have saved 4.2 million lives.
+
## In addition to targeting equipment, new fuel requirements may also be imposed on diesel fuel manufacturers.  <ref> Lewis, P., Rasdorf, W., Frey, H., Pang, S., and Kim, K. (2009). "Requirements and Incentives for Reducing Construction Vehicle Emissions and Comparison of Nonroad Diesel Engine Emissions Data Sources." J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000008, 341-351. </ref>
# What can be done to retrofit the process?
+
## Diesel engines will be required to meet certain emission standards based on their horsepower. Specific information can be found at: http://ascelibrary.org/action/showFullPopup?id=t1&doi=10.1061%2F%28ASCE%29CO.1943-7862.0000008
 +
# '''Is the cost of emission reduction equipment worth the benefits?'''
 +
## The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have set out stricter standards for the improvement of air quality. Since the reforms, SO2 emissions have fallen by about 70% and lead has fallen by 99%. Studies predict that by 2020, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will have saved $2 trillion in economic benefits.  
 +
# '''Will changing this policy have a significant increase on public health?'''
 +
## Particulate matter has caused the following health problems: difficulty breathing, coughing, decreased lung function, asthma, irregular heartbeat, nonfatal heart attacks, and premature death. New regulations will reduce particulate matter in the air and increase health of citizens.
 +
# '''What can be done to retrofit (repowering, rebuilding, and replacing) within the process?'''
 
## Dated engines have been called for replacement to a new model by multiple city and county governments.  
 
## Dated engines have been called for replacement to a new model by multiple city and county governments.  
## Investment in clean diesel (ULSD).
+
## Investment in clean diesel (ULSD) will dramatically increase air quality.
# What is the benefit to those who must follow new regulations?
+
# '''What is the benefit to those who must follow new regulations?'''
 
## Increase in public health as well as the working environment
 
## Increase in public health as well as the working environment
 
## Appreciation and recommendations of industry which uses sustainable practices.
 
## Appreciation and recommendations of industry which uses sustainable practices.
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[[File:Adoption.png|75px]]
 
[[File:Adoption.png|75px]]
 
=====PolicyGraphics=====
 
=====PolicyGraphics=====
 
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the PolicyGraphics section, see: http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_7:_PolicyGraphics-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the PolicyGraphics section, see: http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_7:_PolicyGraphics-->
  
*Has adoption of: [[Has Adoption Of::Limited]]. <ref> INSERT a reference. </ref>
+
*Has adoption of: [[Has Adoption Of::Limited]].
 
<!--Insert one of the following as the level of policy adoption: Proposal, Limited, Common, or Defunct-->
 
<!--Insert one of the following as the level of policy adoption: Proposal, Limited, Common, or Defunct-->
 
<!--Wherever possible, add a reference to a source that backs up claim.-->
 
<!--Wherever possible, add a reference to a source that backs up claim.-->
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<!--(Spectrum: Institution, Local, State or Provincial, National, International)-->
 
<!--(Spectrum: Institution, Local, State or Provincial, National, International)-->
  
*For area type(s): [[For Area Type::Urban, Suburban, Rural]].
+
*For area type(s): [[For Area Type::Urban]], [[For Area Type::Suburban]], [[For Area Type::Rural]].
 
<!--(Spectrum: Urban, Suburban, Rural)-->
 
<!--(Spectrum: Urban, Suburban, Rural)-->
  
*For issue type(s): [[For Issue Type::Integrity, Safety, Sustainability]].
+
*For issue type(s): [[For Issue Type::Safety]], [[For Issue Type::Sustainability]].
 
<!--(Spectrum: Democracy; Diversity; Efficiency; Equity; Finance; Infrastructure; Integrity; Resiliency; Safety; Security; Sustainability; Transparency)-->
 
<!--(Spectrum: Democracy; Diversity; Efficiency; Equity; Finance; Infrastructure; Integrity; Resiliency; Safety; Security; Sustainability; Transparency)-->
  
 
=====Adopters=====
 
=====Adopters=====
 
*Notable entities who have implemented or adopted this policy include:  
 
*Notable entities who have implemented or adopted this policy include:  
# Chicago, IL – requires contractors to receive “Green Fleet Score”, made to reduce emissions
+
#[[Is adopted by::City of Chicago]] – requires contractors to receive a “Green Fleet Score”, in order to reduce emissions. <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum" />
# Los Angeles, CA – all trucks must have a 2007 model year engine
+
#[[Is adopted by::City of Los Angeles]]– all trucks must have a 2007 or newer model year engine <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum" />
# Oakland, CA – prohibits trucks with 1993 engine or lower. Additionally, those trucks who purchase alternative fueled trucks can receive funding through the Goods Movement Emission Reduction Funding Program.
+
#[[Is adopted by::City of Oakland]] – prohibits trucks with engines from 1993 or earlier. Additionally, those who purchase alternative-fueled trucks can receive funding through the Goods Movement Emission Reduction Funding Program. <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum" />
# Seattle, WA – recommends trucks to have 1994 engine or newer.
+
#[[Is adopted by::City of Seattle]] – recommends trucks to have 1994 engine or newer. <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum" />
# Port of Houston, TX – encourage trucks to seek eligibility though the Texas Emissions Reduction Program.  
+
#[[Is adopted by::City of Houston]] – encourage trucks to seek eligibility though the Texas Emissions Reduction Program. <ref name="Diesel Technology Forum" />
<ref> INSERT a reference </ref>
 
<!--Wherever possible, replace "INSERT" with a reference to a source that backs up claim. Please also attempt to refer to the parent executive level of government by which the policy is implemented. For example, rather than "NYC Department of Education" or "New York State Department of Education," please list "City of New York" or "State of New York" List at least 4 adopters.-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Adopters section, see: http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_8:_Adopters-->
 
 
 
<br />
 
  
 
===='''''STAKEHOLDERS'''''====
 
===='''''STAKEHOLDERS'''''====
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[[File:Supporters.png|75px]]
 
[[File:Supporters.png|75px]]
  
*Advocates Alternative Energy. Assumption: Reducing fossil fuel emissions opens options to cleaner fuel sources.
+
*[[Is supported by::Advocates - Alternative Energy]]. Assumption: Reducing fossil fuel emissions opens options to cleaner fuel sources.
*Advocates Environmental Protect. Assumption: Decreasing air pollution with increase atmospheric health.
+
*[[Is supported by::Advocates - Environmental Protection]]. Assumption: Decreasing air pollution with increase atmospheric health.
*Constituent Groups – Local Residents, Student Groups. Assumption: Will appreciate cleaner air quality.
+
*[[Is supported by::Government Agencies - Environmental Protection]]. Assumption: Decrease air pollution and improve quality of life.
*Government Agencies Environmental Protection. Assumption: Decrease air pollution and improve quality of life.
+
*[[Is supported by::Advocates - Public Health]]. Assumption: Decreasing emissions will increase air quality.
 
<!--Replace the first "INSERT" with the name of a stakeholder from the list of stakeholders on your policy area Category page (e.g., for transportation, http://policyatlas.org/wiki/List_of_Transportation_Stakeholders). Replace the second "INSERT" with a description of the assumption explaining when this stakeholder is likely to support this policy.-->
 
<!--Whenever possible, replace "INSERT" with a reference to a source that backs up claim. List at least 4 supporters.-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Supporters section, see: http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_9:_Supporters-->
 
  
 
=====Opponents=====
 
=====Opponents=====
 
[[File:Opponents.png|75px]]
 
[[File:Opponents.png|75px]]
  
*Associations Building and Construction. Assumption: Wouldn’t appreciate restrictions which interfere with or prolong job completion.  
+
*[[Is opposed by::Associations - Building and Construction]]. Assumption: Wouldn’t appreciate restrictions which interfere with or prolong job completion.  
*Advocates Urbanism. Assumption: More stringent regulations could interfere with urban growth.
+
*[[Is opposed by::Advocates - Urbanism]]. Assumption: More stringent regulations could interfere with urban growth.
*Constituent Groups Automobile Clubs and Owners. Assumption: Needing newer emission reduction parts in their car could be costly.
+
*[[Is opposed by::Constituent Groups - Automobile Clubs and Owners]]. Assumption: Needing newer emission reduction parts in their car could be costly.
*Government Agencies – Motor Vehicles. Assumption: Would not support the additional money required to keep up with standards.
+
*[[Is opposed by::Associations - Concrete Suppliers]]. Assumption: Requiring emission reduction equipment will increase the cost of construction therefore decrease the demand for construction activities and materials.
 +
*[[Is opposed by::Associations - Asphalt Suppliers]]. Assumption: Requiring emission reduction equipment will increase the cost of construction therefore decrease the demand for construction activities and materials.  
  
 
<!--Replace the first "INSERT" with the name of a stakeholder from the list of stakeholders on your policy area Category page (e.g., for transportation, http://policyatlas.org/wiki/List_of_Transportation_Stakeholders). Replace the second "INSERT" with a description of the assumption explaining when this stakeholder is likely to oppose this policy.-->
 
<!--Replace the first "INSERT" with the name of a stakeholder from the list of stakeholders on your policy area Category page (e.g., for transportation, http://policyatlas.org/wiki/List_of_Transportation_Stakeholders). Replace the second "INSERT" with a description of the assumption explaining when this stakeholder is likely to oppose this policy.-->
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=====Research=====
 
=====Research=====
 
[[File:Research.png|75px]]
 
[[File:Research.png|75px]]
*"Tier 4 Standards | Diesel Technology Forum." Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/tier-4-standards.
+
*[http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000008 Requirements and Incentives for Reducing Construction Vehicle Emissions and Comparison of Nonroad Diesel Engine Emissions Data Sources.] Lewis, P., Rasdorf, W., Frey, H., Pang, S., and Kim, K. (2009). J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000008, 341-351. This source offers information on the effects of emissions as well as detailed specifics for engines which are required to be replaced or upgraded.
*"CA-5 Equipment Emission Reduction - Greenroads." Accessed October 24, 2016. https://www.greenroads.org/files/143.pdf.
+
*[https://www.google.com/search?q=car+emission+reduction+reports&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8 Roads toward a low-carbon future: Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles in the global road transportation system]. (2009, March). McKinsey&Company, 1-36. Retrieved November 21, 2016. This report details how policymakers have been increasing their efforts to decrease the effects of carbon dioxide.
*"Emission Standards: USA: Nonroad Diesel Engines." Accessed October 24, 2016. https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/nonroad.php.
+
*[https://www.greenroads.org/files/143.pdf. "CA-5 Equipment Emission Reduction - Greenroads."] Accessed October 24, 2016. This publication goes through the steps to achieve greenroads, and it lays out the goals which should be accomplished. Additionally, health impacts are stated as well as the details of implementation.
*"Why Retrofit? | Diesel Technology Forum." Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/why-retrofit.
+
*[https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/nonroad.php. "Emission Standards: USA: Nonroad Diesel Engines."] Accessed October 24, 2016. Goes into details of nonroad diesel engine in reference to  g/kWh per vehicle type.  
+
 
 
<!--List at least 4 scholarly or original research articles on the effectiveness of the policy, including hyperlinks.-->
 
<!--List at least 4 scholarly or original research articles on the effectiveness of the policy, including hyperlinks.-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Research section, see:  http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_11:_Research-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Research section, see:  http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_11:_Research-->
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[[File:Resources.png|75px]]
 
[[File:Resources.png|75px]]
  
 
+
*[http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/tier-4-standards."Tier 4 Standards | Diesel Technology Forum."] Accessed October 24, 2016. Looks at specifics of Tier 4 Standards in emission reduction equipment.
Angelides, Christina. "The 1990 Clean Air Act Will Save 4.2 Million Lives by 2020 ..." March 01, 2011. Accessed October 24, 2016. https://www.nrdc.org/experts/christina-angelides/1990-clean-air-act-will-save-42-million-lives-2020.
+
*[http://www.dieselforum.org/policy/why-retrofit "Why Retrofit? | Diesel Technology Forum."] Accessed October 24, 2016. Decides the benefits of retrofitting as a way to decrease emissions and comply with the equipment requirement standards.
 +
*[https://www.nrdc.org/experts/christina-angelides/1990-clean-air-act-will-save-42-million-lives-2020. Angelides, Christina. "The 1990 Clean Air Act Will Save 4.2 Million Lives by 2020 ..."] March 01, 2011. Accessed October 24, 2016. Analyzes the health impacts of emission reduction technology and policy.
 +
*[http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=8094 Thomas, B. G. (2013). What Materials are Used in Catalytic Converters?] Retrieved November 21, 2016. Explains the details of Catalytic Converters and how their implementation will improve environmental and public health.
 
<!--List any useful primers, briefings or reports on the topic, including hyperlinks. List at least 4 resources.-->
 
<!--List any useful primers, briefings or reports on the topic, including hyperlinks. List at least 4 resources.-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Resources section, see:  http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_12:_Resources-->
 
<!--For more detailed guidance on the Resources section, see:  http://policyatlas.org/wiki/Policy_Atlas:Contribute_a_Policy#Section_12:_Resources-->
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=====Related Policies=====
 
=====Related Policies=====
 
 
<!--List any and all policy concepts that are related to this policy as offsetting policies, complementary policies, or alternative policies. Surround each policy with double-brackets to link to page.-->
 
<!--List any and all policy concepts that are related to this policy as offsetting policies, complementary policies, or alternative policies. Surround each policy with double-brackets to link to page.-->
  
[[Park-and-ride station construction]]
+
*[[Park-and-ride station construction]]
 
+
*[[Vehicle fuel subsidies]]
[[Petroleum fuel subsidies]]
+
*[[Vehicle emission standards]]
 
+
*[[Vehicle fuel efficiency standards]]
[[Vehicle emission standards]]
+
*[[Vehicle idling restrictions]]
 
 
[[Vehicle fuel efficiency standards]]
 
 
 
[[Vehicle idling restrictions]]
 
  
  
  
 
<!-- ====='''''Classification'''''===== -->
 
<!-- ====='''''Classification'''''===== -->
[[Category:Click "edit" to insert]]  
+
[[Category:Transportation]]  
 
<!--List the policy category (e.g., "Category:Education", "Category:Public_Finance" or "Category:Transportation" in double brackets.-->
 
<!--List the policy category (e.g., "Category:Education", "Category:Public_Finance" or "Category:Transportation" in double brackets.-->
  
 
{{Notes}}
 
{{Notes}}

Latest revision as of 01:16, 23 January 2017

Vehicle emission reduction equipment requirements are policies that require vehicles to use specific equipment in order to reduce their emission of toxic substances, usually released by the combustion of fossil fuels, into the atmosphere. Types of vehicles that may be subject to such requirements include passenger automobiles as well as off-road vehicles used for construction and agriculture. As opposed to a "standards-based approach," in which simply the amount of emissions from a vehicle is regulated, equipment requirements prescribe specific equipment that have been shown to reduce emissions. Common substances which are detrimental to air quality and whose release may be mitigated by required equipment include SO2, NOx, ozone, and particulate matter. Vehicle emission reduction equipment requirements have historically been implemented at the national level, typically in conjunction with overarching clean air policies and initiatives. The policies are most effective when they include local and state government participation to further limit and monitor emission activity. Ultimately, the requirements can be expected to increase costs for vehicle owners, though flexibility with respect to equipment design may help drive more competitive production and lower prices.

CONCEPT


Concept.png

Goals
Conceptual Example

A national government is experiencing increased pollution due to increased urbanization, driving and traffic congestion. Accordingly, it hopes to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions in order to increase public and environmental health. To begin the execution of this goal, it has required that vehicle manufacturers use specified emission reduction equipment certified by the government in the creation of all new automobiles and trucks. By requiring that all mass-produced vehicles carry a standardized technology or piece of equipment, the government reduces the amount of harmful emissions into the air from the use of such vehicles, resulting in cleaner air and various public health benefits.

Specific Example

In the U.S., national policies and other economic pressures have caused many vehicle manufacturers to reduce the toxicity and amount of their emissions into the atmosphere. As a result, newer model engines have generally been significantly less harmful to the environment than older models. Accordingly, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) requires that all trucks driven into marine terminals use an engine with a model year of 1994 or newer. In addition, PANYNJ also created a new program that provides eligible applicants with a grant to cover up to one-fourth of the purchase price of a newer vehicle as well as the possibility of low-interest loans to cover the remaining three-fourths of the cost. [1].

Tradeoffs

Tradeoffs.png

Tradeoffs of implementing this policy may include:

  1. Reduction in local construction activity if the required equipment necessitates substantial investments to upgrade construction vehicles in order to be in compliance with the new policy.
  2. Cost of transition: replacing or updating older engines and unsustainable equipment with newer, more efficient technologies.
  3. Possible job losses due to decrease in local construction costs.
  4. Continued reliance on fossil fuels by merely promoting their decreased and more efficient use, rather than pushing for alternatives with a less harmful impact on the environment.
  5. May be costly and difficult to enforce and implement due to the specificity of requirements at an individual automobile's level and the potential time-intensive nature of determining whether or not the equipment is properly installed and used.
Compatibility Assessment

Compatibility Assessment.png

If answered yes, the following questions indicate superior conditions under which the policy is more likely to be appropriate:

  1. Have harmful air emissions contributed to public health issues?
  2. Does the city or town endure large amounts of construction or congestion?
  3. Do air quality monitors indicate negative results?
  4. Has there been public opinion indicating desire for environmental reforms?
  5. Does smog exist and has it effected weather or water quality of the city or town?
  6. Is it cost-effective to implement emission reduction equipment?
  7. Does the technology to outfit vehicles with emission reduction equipment exist and is it readily accessible?
Design

Design.png

Assuming that a jurisdiction has decided to adopt the policy, the following questions will need to be answered when determining how to implement this policy:

  1. What types of vehicles and sources of emissions will be subject to the equipment requirements?
    1. Specific targets of the requirements would be large construction sites as well as any non-road motor vehicles such as trucks.
    2. Additionally, since the year 2010, all U.S. automobiles require a catalytic converter to be up to standards. [2]
  2. What equipment will be required?
    1. Equipment for standard vehicles often focuses on the incorporation of catalytic converters.
    2. In addition to targeting equipment, new fuel requirements may also be imposed on diesel fuel manufacturers. [3]
    3. Diesel engines will be required to meet certain emission standards based on their horsepower. Specific information can be found at: http://ascelibrary.org/action/showFullPopup?id=t1&doi=10.1061%2F%28ASCE%29CO.1943-7862.0000008
  3. Is the cost of emission reduction equipment worth the benefits?
    1. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have set out stricter standards for the improvement of air quality. Since the reforms, SO2 emissions have fallen by about 70% and lead has fallen by 99%. Studies predict that by 2020, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will have saved $2 trillion in economic benefits.
  4. Will changing this policy have a significant increase on public health?
    1. Particulate matter has caused the following health problems: difficulty breathing, coughing, decreased lung function, asthma, irregular heartbeat, nonfatal heart attacks, and premature death. New regulations will reduce particulate matter in the air and increase health of citizens.
  5. What can be done to retrofit (repowering, rebuilding, and replacing) within the process?
    1. Dated engines have been called for replacement to a new model by multiple city and county governments.
    2. Investment in clean diesel (ULSD) will dramatically increase air quality.
  6. What is the benefit to those who must follow new regulations?
    1. Increase in public health as well as the working environment
    2. Appreciation and recommendations of industry which uses sustainable practices.


ADOPTION


Adoption.png

PolicyGraphics
Adopters
  • Notable entities who have implemented or adopted this policy include:
  1. City of Chicago – requires contractors to receive a “Green Fleet Score”, in order to reduce emissions. [1]
  2. City of Los Angeles– all trucks must have a 2007 or newer model year engine [1]
  3. City of Oakland – prohibits trucks with engines from 1993 or earlier. Additionally, those who purchase alternative-fueled trucks can receive funding through the Goods Movement Emission Reduction Funding Program. [1]
  4. City of Seattle – recommends trucks to have 1994 engine or newer. [1]
  5. City of Houston – encourage trucks to seek eligibility though the Texas Emissions Reduction Program. [1]

STAKEHOLDERS


Supporters

Supporters.png

Opponents

Opponents.png



REFERENCES


Research

Research.png


Resources

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Footnotes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Why Retrofit?" Diesel Technology Forum. Accessed January 22, 2016.
  2. Thomas, B. G. (2013). What Materials are Used in Catalytic Converters? Retrieved November 21, 2016, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=8094
  3. Lewis, P., Rasdorf, W., Frey, H., Pang, S., and Kim, K. (2009). "Requirements and Incentives for Reducing Construction Vehicle Emissions and Comparison of Nonroad Diesel Engine Emissions Data Sources." J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000008, 341-351.
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