Bicycle lane design standards
Bicycle lane design standards are requirements for bicycle lane design, including bike lane width standards which are different under different types of conditions, bike lane at intersections, bike lanes and turning lanes, bike lane symbol--signing and pavement marking, as well as its location within the street cross-section. Actually, bicycle lanes are always located on both sides of the road on two-way street. However, two-way bike lanes on one side of two-way streets are not recommended since it creates hazardous conditions for bicyclists. On one-way streets, bicycle lanes should be installed on the right-hand side. Through bicycle lane design, bicyclists can ride at their preferred speed without interference from prevailing traffic conditions and facilitate predictable behavior and movements between bicyclists and motorists. And the purpose of the bicycle lane design standards are provide cities with state-of-the practice solutions that can help create complete streets that are safe and enjoyable for bicyclists.
A municipality wants to add bike lanes on its 44 feet main street, two-way with four travel lanes, to help increase the efficiency of cycling as well as reduce the percentage of injuries and deaths from bicycle accidents. After professionals from transportation department had analyzed this main street, they suggested a “road diet (A road diet, also called a lane reduction or road rechannelization, is a technique in transportation planning whereby the number of travel lanes and/or effective width of the road is reduced in order to achieve systemic improvements.)” proposal—changing four travel lanes to two 11 feet travel lanes and one 12 feet center lane, as well as two 5 feet bike lanes. City residents react by riding instead of driving to nearby shopping and working because they have their own space to ride without automobiles interference.
Tradeoffs of implementing this policy may include:
- Decrease the on-street parking area.
- Reduce the speeds of motor vehicles in adjacent lanes.
- Cause traffic jams if there are to many motor vehicles on street because of road diet for bicycle lanes.
- Limited diversity of bicycle lane design.
- Reduce the implement of bicycle lane if the width of road can not meet the design standards.
If answered yes, the following questions indicate superior conditions under which the policy is more likely to be appropriate:
- Is there has a large number of bicycle users?
- Is there has available parking spaces except for on-street parking spaces for cars?
- Does the road has enough space to meet the bicycle lane design standards?
- Is there has enough trees along the street for cyclists? since trees can provide cooler riding conditions in summer and provide a windbreak.
- Is there has a low possibility of theft or vandalism at bicycle parking locations?
The following questions should be considered when determining how to implement this policy:
- What criteria is used when determining which streets need to bicycle lanes?
- Who will be responsible for regular maintenance of bicycle lanes? Since bicyclists are unable to use a lane with potholes, debris or broken glass.
- How to deal with the confliction between bicycle lanes and on-street parking?
- How facilities for bicyclists can be integrated into the layout of busy urban street?
- How to deal with bus stops, what happens to cyclist there?
- What connections, if any, will be needed to improve connections to bicycle lane?
- Has adoption of: Common.
- For governance level(s): Local.
- For area type(s): Urban.
- Notable entities who have implemented or adopted this policy include:
- Constituent Groups - Commuters. Assumption: This policy may help reduce traffic congestions since people willing to ride bicycles to work.
- Constituent Groups - Local Residents. Assumption: Local residents have a better bicycle travel experience for their daily life and also save money.
- Advocates - Bicycle Transportation. Assumption: This policy may improve riding quality then will increase ridership.
- Advocates - Bicycle Safety. Assumption: This policy may decrease the traffic accident between cyclists and automobiles.
- Advocates - Environmental Protection. Assumption: This policy will encourage cycling instead of driving.
- Associations - Bicycle Manufacturers. Assumption: This policy will lead a high demand of bicycles.
- Advocates - Bus Transportation. Assumption: If people prefer to work by riding, it will reduce the use of taking bus.
- Associations - Automobile Manufacturers. Assumption: By improving the riding quality, people will prefer to use bicycles rather than automobiles,so people will not buy cars.
- Associations - Vehicle Parts Suppliers. Assumption: Bicycle lane design will encourage people riding since it provides a comfortable riding environment.
- Labor Unions - Parking Attendants. Assumption: Bicycle lane design may decrease the width of on street parking, which makes parking difficult.
- Dondi, Giulio, et al. "Bike lane design: the context sensitive approach." Procedia engineering 21 (2011): 897-906.
- Krizek, Kevin J., and Rio W. Roland. "What is at the end of the road? Understanding discontinuities of on-street bicycle lanes in urban settings." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 10.1 (2005): 55-68 
- Tilahun, Nebiyou Y., David M. Levinson, and Kevin J. Krizek. "Trails, lanes, or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adaptive stated preference survey." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 41.4 (2007): 287-301.
- Urban Street Design Guide, NACTO website
- Guide, Chicago Bike Lane Design. "Chicago Bike Lane Design Guide." (2004). 
- AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. “AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities.” American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC. 
- PORTLAND BICYCLE PLAN FOR 2030, BIKEWAY FACILITY DESIGN:SURVEY OF BEST PRACTICES 
- New York City Department of City Planning. “New York City Bicycle Master Plan.” Department of City Planning & Department of Transportation, City of New York, New York, NY. 
- Bicycle share programs
- Protected bicycle intersection designation
- Protected bicycle lane designation