Park-and-ride station construction

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Park-and-ride policies are intended to allow commuters heading to central cities to park their vehicles in a specified location and then transfer to alternative transportation modes, such as carpool, vanpool, bus, rail system, bike, or walk, to finish their commute. Commuters can retrieve their vehicles when they return to park-and-ride lots again.Park-and-ride lots are specialized parking lots typically located on the suburban fringe of urbanized areas. These lots are strategically placed outside of the “ring of congestion” on major commuter corridors. Services offered at park-and-rides may include local fixed routes, express bus, bus rapid transit, and rail. They are designed to transfer commuters from low-occupancy modes (personal cars) to high-occupancy modes (rail, bus, van and carpools). Typical park-and ride amenities include covered or enclosed waiting areas, benches, and sometimes vending machines and restrooms. Lots can vary in size from 200 to over 7500 spaces, and can be used exclusively for transit or offer shared users, such as vanpool staging. Transit fares from park-and-rides are typically higher than basic local fares, and parking may be free or cost a small fee.

CONCEPT


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Goals
Conceptual Example

To ease the congestion and environmental pollution in a ciry, park-and-ride policie is a good choice. In a park-and-ride lot, several different travel modes are offered, such as carpool, vanpool, bus, or train. For those commuters who drive to the lot, they can park their vehicle and meet their carpool or vanpool partners or transfer to another form of transportation (bus, train, bike). For those commuters who go to the lot by bike, they can leave their bikes at bike racks or lockers, then join the ride. To encourage more commuters to participate in park-and-ride policies, city often implementes related strategies. For instance, carpools and vanpools are allowed to use lanes which have less traffic. Some employers provide commuter fare assistance or parking privileges for employees who use these transportation modes. The reason why people are willing to leave their cars at park-and-ride lots and choose another travel mode to go to work is park-and-ride is a both time-saving and money-saving way. Commuters can go to work in a shorter period of time and save a lot of money on car maintenance and gas. The park-and-ride policy is also good for the environment because ridesharing leads to less harmful emission from vehicles.

Specific Example

In Oxford, up to 80000 vehicles converge on the city and its parking spaces every day. At peak hours, there is always a 30 minutes of congestion in the three-miles trip from Pear Tree roundabout to locations close to the city center. Before the implementation of park-and-ride policy, over 35% of visitors went to central Oxford by car. Park and Rides decrease 18% of Oxford bound cars during off-peak times and 38% at peak times.Park and Ride prevented Oxford from becoming an inner city car park.

Tradeoffs

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Tradeoffs of implementing this policy may include:

  1. Park-and-ride policy does not decrease the amount of traffic. It just redistributes it.
  2. Building park-and-ride lots in suburban area causes environmental pollution in city edge.
  3. Park-and-ride excludes those people who without cars, which leads to social inequality.
  4. Large areas of land for car parking is a waste of land which could be put to more productive use.
  5. Park-and-ride policy has an adverse effect on rural bus service if the expense of park-and-ride is cheaper than normal bus charge.
Compatibility Assessment

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If answered yes, the following questions indicate superior conditions under which the policy is more likely to be appropriate:

  1. Does the jurisdiction include mass transit in the urban core, yet still have a significant number of suburban commuters who drive directly to their workplaces?
  2. Does the jurisdiction have the financial and administrative capacity to update and improve access and service for its park-and-ride system?
  3. Do the buses serve a large proportion of local residents, with frequent and reliable service?
  4. Does a park-and-ride station have enough service facilities to meet the needs of users?
  5. If a park-and-ride station were installed, would a significant number of drivers utilize alternative transit to complete their commute routes?
Design

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Assuming that a jurisdiction has decided to adopt the policy, the following questions will need to be answered when determining how to implement this policy:

  1. What phases needed in planning a park-and-ride station?
    1. Planning a park-and-ride facility generally has three major phases:
      1. Determining facility need and system integration(Loss of an existing park-and-ride facility/Existing facilities near, at, or over capacity with anticipated ongoing growth /New market area for expansion of transit services/Transit way Facilities/Suggested Facilities Require Evaluation)
      2. Market Area Analysis ( Review Existing Conditions/ Determine Potential Market Area/ Estimate Existing and Future Demand / Analyze Effects of Facility and Service Competition or Reinforcement/ Refine Demand Estimates )
      3. Site selection and design considerations
  2. What types of land ownership can be used for park-and-ride facilities?
    1. There are three types of land ownership can be used for park-and-ride facilities.
      1. Public right-of-way
      2. Joint-Use Opportunity
      3. Private Land
  3. What requirements does park-and-ride station should meet?
    1. Park-and-ride facilities should be located in congested travel corridors.
    2. Park-and-ride facilities should be located in advance of areas experiencing major traffic congestion.
    3. The primary travel corridor, on which the facility is located, should be equipped with continuous transit advantages, such as bus-only shoulders or HOV/HOT lanes in the congested segments of the corridor.
    4. For optimal transit service efficiency, transit travel time from the park-and-ride facility to a major activity center should be minimized.
    5. Park-and-ride facilities should be oriented to ensure good visibility among potential users.
    6. Access and egress to the facility should be located on the right side of the roadway in terms of the inbound direction to the primary activity center (destination).
    7. Future expanding potential should be considered.
  4. What conditions must be present within the urban region for park-and-ride policies to be successful?
    1. High parking costs in the urban core
    2. Long commute times
    3. Heavy roadway congestion
    4. High fuel prices
  5. What modes of transit should connect to the park-and-ride station?
    1. Bus, bicycle, train, carpooling, vanpooling are common transit modes connected to park-and-ride station.
  6. What amenities should include in park-and-ride station to serve the needs and comforts of transit users?
    1. Lighting
    2. Public Phone
    3. Shelter
    4. Seating
    5. Restrooms
    6. Connection to bicycle / pedestrian route
    7. Bicycle parking, racks or lockers
    8. HOV Access
    9. Transit Access
    10. Security

ADOPTION


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PolicyGraphics
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    ,National.
Adopters

STAKEHOLDERS


Supporters

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  • Advocates - Bus Transportation. Assumption: Public bus transportation provides economic benefits to communities and is an increasingly popular mode for millennials. [5]
  • Advocates - Environmental Protection. Assumption: By increasing the share of commuters who use public transportation, communities can decrease congestion, increase the number of available green jobs, and reduce carbon dioxide and other pollution from cars. [6]
  • Advocates - Mass Transportation. Assumption: Along with economic and pollution reduction benefits, increasing the share of commuters using public transportation helps fund mass transit systems and works to take cars off of the streets, creating a safer environment for all commuters. [7]
  • Advocates - Smart Growth. Assumption: Encouraging and improving public transportation is an essential part of Smart Growth's goals, including transit oriented development. [8]
  • Advocates - Urbanism. Assumption: New Urbanism promotes designing spaces in a way that increases public transportation ridership, and works to reduce sprawl and congestion. [9]
  • Associations - Bus Manufacturers. Assumption: This policy may increase the number of commuters taking the bus, and cities would therefore need more buses for their fleets. [10]
  • Associations - Concrete Suppliers. Assumption: Park-and-Ride Station construction may create a demand for construction materials such like concrete.
  • Constituent Groups - Commuters. Decreases traffic and increases options for commuters who travel to and from work.
  • Constituent Groups - Local Businesses. Assumption: Park-and-Ride Station may motivate the development local businesses.
  • Government Agencies - Transit Authorities. Assumption: Increasing ridership for mass transit is beneficial to government transit authorities and communities as it decreases the need for additional infrastructure, encourages economic development, provides jobs, increases access and mobility, and reduces pollution. [11]
  • Government Agencies - Transportation. Assumption: Park-and-Ride Station contributes to reduce traffic congestion.
  • Labor Unions - Construction Workers. Assumption: Park-and-Ride Station Construction may create jobs for construction workers.
Opponents

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REFERENCES


Research

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Resources

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Footnotes
  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Park_and_ride
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Park_and_rid
  3. https://mobility.tamu.edu/mip/strategies-pdfs/system-modification/technical-summary/Park-And-Ride-Lots-4-Pg.pdf
  4. https://mobility.tamu.edu/mip/strategies-pdfs/system-modification/technical-summary/Park-And-Ride-Lots-4-Pg.pdf
  5. http://www.publictransportation.org/benefits/Pages/default.aspx
  6. http://www.apta.com/gap/policyresearch/Documents/facts_environment_09.pdf
  7. https://www.transalt.org/about
  8. https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/smart-growth-and-transportation
  9. https://www4.uwm.edu/cuts/2050/urbanism.pdf
  10. http://www.nctr.usf.edu/jpt/pdf/JPT11-2Ecola.pdf
  11. https://www.wmata.com/pdfs/planning/WMATA%20Making%20the%20Case%20for%20Transit%20Final%20Report%20Jan-2012.pdf
  12. https://www.metromile.com/blog/car-tips-if-you-drive-less/
  13. https://www.wmata.com/pdfs/planning/WMATA%20Making%20the%20Case%20for%20Transit%20Final%20Report%20Jan-2012.pdf
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